Does President Trump Have Authority to Secure Our Southern Border?

trump - with wall behind him (jan. 2019)

by Diane Rufino (also referencing an article by Publius Huldah), January 15, 2019

QUESTION:  Can President Trump seal off our southern border?

There are three theories, perhaps even four, upon which President Trump can close our southern border, including providing a permanent, physical barrier:

(1)  IMMIGRATION AUTHORITY.  The President can suspend entry of individuals from Mexico and countries of Central and South America, per an express provision of the US Immigration & Nationality Act, and per the opinion of the Supreme Court in the recent case of the so-called “Muslim ban.”  Since the restraints in place at the order are currently ineffective to prevent the uncontrolled illegal entry into our country, a physical barrier would be necessary (under the “Necessary & Proper Clause”)

If Trump takes this option, he neither needs to get Congressional approval nor approval of (or review from) the courts. Neither can stop him because they have already given him that authority and recognized that he was given that authority. Congress did so in federal law (Title 8, Chapter 12 of the US Code – “Immigration & Nationality Act”) and the Supreme Court re-affirmed (in Trump v. Hawaii, June 2018).

Title 8, Chapter 12 of the U.S. Code, which governs “inadmissible aliens,” reads:

“Whenever the President finds that the entry of any aliens or of any class of aliens into the United States would be detrimental to the interests of the United States, he may by proclamation, and for such period as he shall deem necessary, suspend the entry of all aliens or any class of aliens as immigrants or nonimmigrants, or impose on the entry of aliens any restrictions he may deem to be appropriate.”

Notice some key language in that statutory provision:  “for any such period as he shall deem necessary”  and “impose on the entry of aliens ANY restrictions he may deem to be appropriate.”

Again, every power that Congress is delegated (Article I, Section), including the power it willingly delegated to the President on this particular immigration issue, is subject to the “Necessary & Proper” Clause which the Supreme Court interpreted as “pretty much any means necessary which the government believes will help carry out the particular responsibility.”

The president has the authority to close the borders. And no lower court can stop him with an injunction…..  if he chooses to go this route.

(2)  DUTY TO REPEL INVASION. Congress can seal off the border pursuant to the authority granted to it to call up the militia (“to repel invasions”; Article I, Section 8) and pursuant to the DUTY delegated to the federal government in general to repel invasion (Article V, Section 4).  Additionally, Article II, Section 3 requires the President, as the Chief Executive of government power, to take care that the laws be faithfully executed.

Article I, Section 8 authorize s Congress to call up of the Militia for three (3) purposes: To execute the Laws of the Union; To suppress Insurrections: and To repel Invasions.

Article IV, Section 4 reads: “The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.”

Article IV talks about a GUARANTEE.  It delegates an absolute responsibility on the federal government to provide certain protections for the States – to guarantee each State a republican form of government and to protect each against invasion. States are entitled to EXPECT this absolute guarantee. So, if Congress refuses to do its part, then the responsibility shifts to the President. In the end, the federal government MUST – absolutely MUST – protect all states against an invasion.

Indeed, there is an invasion of illegal aliens into our country, imposing severe burdens on our resources (including education, health services, social services, our tax dollars, and our law enforcement system. Taxpayers are entitled to the expectation that the money siphoned off their hard work and property will go only to those who are legal citizens in this country. More seriously, there is an invasion of illegal criminals, gangs, drug cartels and drug traffickers, and human traffickers. Prisons house disproportionate numbers of Hispanic criminals.

There are 48 US-Mexico border crossings – LEGAL crossings. But thousands upon thousands each year evade these legal points of entry to come to this country illegally, hoping to take advantage of our government’s refusal to enforce our country’s immigration laws and to take advantage of every benefit that America offers. (Note though that is the US were to go to war and impose a draft, illegals would not be called). There are approximately 414,000 illegals apprehended each year by a severely-limited and constrained task force of border agents. Imagine how many make it across the border and are not able to be apprehended. The numbers are staggering. And in the past several months, the rate of illegal crossings has increased 37%.  New American (online journal) estimates that 14,000 of these are violent criminals.

Most aliens that come to the United States illegally do so for a better life, for a chance to make more money. But the open border and uncontrolled illegal immigration brings other problems into our country. The United States is one of the key destination countries, if not the key destination country, for thousands of men, women, and children trafficked from all areas of the world. These victims are trafficked for the purposes of sexual and labor exploitation. Many of these victims are lured from their homes with false promises of well-paying jobs; instead, they are forced or coerced into prostitution, domestic servitude, farm or factory labor, or other types of forced labor. Between 14,500 and 17,500 people are trafficked into our country each year, certainly prompting a humanitarian crisis.

And then there is the increase in drug smuggling across the border. Seizures of hard drugs like heroin, methamphetamine (meth), cocaine, and fentanyl spiked to the highest levels in years. The numbers reflect the trend of cartels turning to more potent drugs in pursuit of profits, as many of the individual states have decriminalized the use of marijuana, both for medicinal and recreational purposes. In the past two years, enough fentanyl (a synthetic opioid which is 50 times more potent than heroin and 100 times more potent than morphine, and can be fatal the first time a person takes it) came into our country from across the southern border to kill every person in the United States. Two Hispanic men were arrested last year in NJ with enough fentanyl to kill the entire population of New Jersey and New York City (with intent to distribute). In NJ alone, in 2016, there were over 800 overdoses from fentanyl, and fentanyl was found in 2% of heroin that was tested in the state. Users are unaware of this. Just recently, in Nebraska, two Hispanic men were arrested for possession of enough fentanyl to kill about 28 million people (with intent to distribute and sell).

Finally, there is a significant increase in MS-13 gang membership and activity. MS-13 is a notoriously brutal gang based in El Salvador. In 2005, the Bush administration waged war on the deadly gang (similar to what President Trump is doing), and gang activity was stifled, but under the Obama administration, especially from 2012-2016, the gang has been able to rebuild itself. This resurgence represents a very serious threat to public safety in communities where MS-13 has rebuilt itself. The resurgence is directly connected to the illegal arrival and resettlement of more than 300,000 Central American youths and families that came here, undeterred, during the Obama years. All criminal gangs are a threat to public safety, but MS-13 is a unique problem because of the unusually brutal crimes its members have committed, its success in using intimidation to victimize and control people in its territory, and its focus on recruiting young members, often in schools. Technically, because most of the gang members are illegal, they could be targeted and removed from the communities they terrorize by law enforcement and ICE. However, because of sanctuary policies, and the proliferation of sanctuary states, cities, and communities, these gang members are protected from apprehension.

Taken together, it sure sounds like our country is being invaded. And that being so, every state is entitled to protection against it by the federal government. The simplest way to protect the states is simply to enforce our immigration laws and to seal and secure the border with a physical barrier. Make no mistake, we are suffering an invasion of individuals who are first seeking to evade our laws (the cornerstone of our society), and secondly, to do us harm (whether intentional or not, and whether violent or simply by overloading our resources, inciting protests and instability, or presenting a political crisis).

(3)  DECLARE A NATIONAL EMERGENCY (pursuant to the National Emergencies Act).  The goal of this approach is to get border wall funding thru the National Emergencies Act, by diverting money allocated to the military to use to build the wall.  The reason this option is an attractive option to President Trump is because once he declares a “national emergency,” a decision that is entirely within his discretion (and which many presidents before him did, for much more urgent matters), he is able to set aside many of the legal limits on his authority. He would become vested with certain “emergency powers,” such as by instantly becoming Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, or by vesting in him a broad, undefined executive powers. President FDR used national emergency powers to intern Japanese-Americans after the attack on Pearl Harbor, President Bush used them to pursue warrantless wiretapping related to the war on terror, and President Obama on account of the Swine Flu outbreak in 2009.  (Actually, Obama claimed a state of emergency, thus invoking the Act, a total of 12 times].

The National Emergencies Act of 1976 authorizes presidents to issue an emergency declaration, but under certain constraints; he can only use powers Congress has already codified by law and he has to say which powers he’s using. The 1976 law was actually passed to rein in presidential abuse with relation to national emergencies. Past presidents such as FDR, Truman, and Nixon abused the power [In the 1952 case, Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer, the Supreme Court addressed the constitutionality of President Truman’s seizure and control of most of the country’s steel mills, in anticipation of a strike by the United Steelworkers of America. The Court ruled that Truman had over-stepped his authority].

The first thing President Trump would need to do is issue an emergency proclamation, explaining the nature of the emergency. Then he would need to identify which powers he intends to use. If Trump were to try to get border wall funding through the National Emergencies Act, the question then becomes which existing laws he could use to get the money. The Brennan Center for Justice believes there are at least 130 laws that contain special powers Trump could access (other legal experts say there are as much as 136 laws). Apparently, the law Trump is particularly interested in is one that allows him to reallocate military spending on construction projects for the wall. One law allows the defense secretary, after a national emergency declaration, to direct the army’s civil works program to construct a structure needed for national defense and use the military budget to do it. Another lets the secretary direct other military services for construction projects. For example, money could come out of the budget for building housing on military bases for service members and into the budget for the wall.

The White House has also reportedly directed the Army Corps of Engineers to take a look at its budget for potential funds to divert to the wall, including $13.9 billion from a disaster spending bill passed by Congress last year designed for relief projects in California, Florida, Texas, and Puerto Rico.

Alternatively, Trump could declare a “state of immigration emergency,” which unlocks an immigration emergency fund, which is generally supposed to be used to help states feed and house migrants and process their claims. The problem with this choice is that the immigration emergency fund doesn’t have nearly enough money to meet the amount requested – $5.7 billion.

Note, though, that the National Emergencies Act contains a mechanism for Congress to overrule the president by passing a joint resolution (both House and Senate). With Democrats in control of the House, it would presumably pass there easily, but most likely it would not pass the Senate, where Republicans recently increased their majority.

(4)  THE PRESIDENT’S DUTY TO ENSURE THE LAWS ARE ENFORCED.  Again, as mentioned above, Article II, Section 3 requires the President, as the Chief Executive of government power, to take care that the laws be faithfully executed. If Congress won’t provide the necessary funding (less than 1% of the total US budget, and a fraction of what Congress spends on “pork” projects), than President Trump may have to accept funding from other sources, including donations.

Those are my thoughts anyway.

The real authority, however, is my good friend, renown Constitutional attorney and activist, Publius Huldah. In her latest article , “Yes! Trump Has the Constitutional Authority to Secure Our Southern Border,” she goes into detail as to why President Trump has the authority to secure our southern border.  Please take a read:

 

YES!! TRUMP HAS CONSTITUTIONAL AUTHORITY TO SECURE OUR SOUTHERN BORDER, by Publius Huldah

Instead of reading our Constitution and seeing what it says, Americans get their legal advice from what “everybody says.”

Now, they are hearing about “emergency powers”, and are in a tail spin. Did Congress’ “Emergency Powers Act” delegate to the President the power to call whatever he wants an “emergency” and then do what he deems best?

Our focus shouldn’t be on what can be called an “emergency,” but what does our Constitution authorize the federal government to do (if anything) with respect to the hot topic of the day?

Let’s look at Migration (immigration) in the context of the hordes of aliens storming thru our Southern Border. What does our Constitution say about it?

Art. I, § 9, clause 1, delegates power over Migration (immigration) to Congress. So Congress is to make the immigration laws; and the President, as Chief Executive, is to put Congress’ laws into effect.

Art. IV, § 4 REQUIRES the United States to protect each of the States against Invasion.

Art. I, § 8, clauses 15 and 16, authorize the calling up of the Militia for three (3) purposes: to execute the Laws of the Union; to suppress Insurrections; and repel Invasions.

Art. II, § 3 authorizes the President to recommend to Congress such measures as he deems necessary and expedient; to convene Congress on extraordinary occasions; and requires him to take care that the laws be faithfully executed (that includes the immigration laws.)

Art. II, § 2, provides that the President is Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. He is Commander-in-Chief of the Militia when it is called into active service of the United States. As noted above, the Militia may be called into active service to “repel invasions”.

So those are the Constitutional Provisions which apply to the invasion of our Southern Border.

America is finished if we don’t control our Southern Border. Congress and the President have clear constitutional authority – actually, they have the DUTY – to control our Southern Border.

The best way the control the Southern Border is to build a wall. [I know from personal observation during the Cold War that the wall the Soviets built between East and West Germany prevented people in the East from escaping to the West.]

What if Congress refuses to fund the wall? Must the President tell the American People, “Well, I tried. But my hands are tied. You better get ready for civil war.”

No! Art. IV, § 4 imposes on the United States the Duty to protect each of the States against invasion. If Congress won’t do it, the President must. He is Chief Executive of the United States. For him to refuse to act for the reason that Congress won’t fund the wall would be as contemptible as the Husband and Father who refuses to get armed to protect his Family because the government says he can’t be armed.

So, the President may solicit donations from the American People for funds, labor, and construction materials, to build a wall.

About “calling up the Militia” to “repel invasions” —   Well, we no longer have the Militia provided for at Art. I, §8, clauses 15 and 16. During 1903, the American People and their federal and state legislators (who had all “mainlined” on Progressivism) went along with the federalizing of the Militia. This was done with the federal Dick Act of 1903 (Militia Act of 1903), which converted the Militia into the National Guard, which is an adjunct of the federal military.

If we still had the “Militia of the several States,” it would be obvious that the Militia must be – and could be – called into national service to repel the “invasion” coming through our Southern Border.

But since we no longer have the Militia, we must rely on the closest thing to a Militia we have left, which is the National Guard. Congress has passed laws which authorize the President to call the National Guard into national service. The Militia Act of 1903 established the creation of the National Guard of the United States as the primary organized reserve force for the U.S. armed forces, thus federalizing state militias. The National Defense Act of 1916 gave the President authority, in case of war or national emergency, to mobilize the National Guard for the duration of the emergency. And the National Guard Mobilization Act of 1933 made the National Guard a component of the Army

The point is that the President probably has authority to call up the National Guard to protect our Southern Border and the construction workers while the Wall is being built.

But if push comes to shove, the President has the Clear Duty to protect our Southern Border and to “preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

Remember – the Questions are always: “What does the Constitution authorize” & “What Duties does the Constitution impose on the federal government?”

There is no substitute for reading the Constitution for yourself. Article by Article – and then seeing how the Articles all work together – hand in glove.

 

References:

Publius Huldah, “Yes! Trump Has the Authority to Secure Our Southern Border,” Publius Huldah blog, January 15, 2019.  Referenced at:  https://publiushuldah.wordpress.com/2019/01/15/yes-trump-has-constitutional-authority-to-secure-our-southern-border/

Cort Kirkwood, “Trump Can Close the Border, Former Federal Prosecutor Says,” New American, October 25, 2018.  Referenced at:  https://www.thenewamerican.com/usnews/immigration/item/30446-trump-can-close-the-border-former-federal-prosecutor-says

Hilary Hurd, Yishai Schwartz, “Supreme Court Travel Ban Ruling Summary,” Lawfare, June 26, 2018.  Referenced at:  https://www.lawfareblog.com/supreme-court-travel-ban-ruling-summary

11 Facts About Human Trafficking, Do Something.  Referenced at:  https://www.dosomething.org/us/facts/11-facts-about-human-trafficking

Raphael Carranza, “Harder Drugs, Higher Profits: US-Mexico Border Sees a Shift in the Kinds of Drugs Seized,” azcentral, February 23, 2018.  Referenced at:  https://www.azcentral.com/story/news/politics/border-issues/2018/02/23/united-states-mexico-border-patrol-drugs-seized/353260002/

“Synthetic Opioid Overdose Data,” Center for Disease Control.  Referenced at: https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/data/fentanyl.html

Jessica M. Vaughan, “MS-13 Resurgence: Immigration Enforcement Needed to Take Back Our Streets,” Center for Immigration Studies, February 21, 2018. Referenced at:  https://cis.org/Report/MS13-Resurgence-Immigration-Enforcement-Needed-Take-Back-Our-Streets

Emily Stewart, “How Trump Could Use a National Emergency to Get His Border Wall, Explained,” VOX, January 11, 2019.  Referenced at:  https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2019/1/8/18172749/trump-national-emergency-government-shutdown-wall

Elizabeth Goitein, “What the President Could Do If He Declares a State of Emergency,” The Atlantic, January-February issue.  Referenced at:  https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2019/01/presidential-emergency-powers/576418/    [Elizabeth Goitein is a co-director of the Liberty and National Security Program at the Brennan Center for Justice]

Advertisements

IMMIGRATION: A Pawn in the Bigger Political Game

IMMIGRATION - Illegal Children Separated from Parents, and crammed in detention center (Breitbart Texas)

(Picture Credit:  Breitbart Texas, 2014)

by Diane Rufino, June 21, 2018

In 2014, Breitbart Texas (reported Brandon Darby) broke the story of how child border crossers were being crammed into detention centers and facilities by the Obama administration, revealing a number of exclusive photos that went completely unmentioned by the establishment media. The pictures were posted on twitter.

Mr. Darby is an embedded journalist, unlike so-called journalists from the mainstream media, unlike members of Hollywierd, unlike most of DC’s Democratic members of Congress, and unlike almost every progressive/liberal/Democratic opponent of immigration laws. He spends at least 10 days every month at the border in Texas, at the ICE detention centers, and also in Mexican territory, including areas controlled by the vicious and violent drug cartels.

I don’t know about you, but I’ll put more credence in the articles and reports written by Darby and Breitbart Texas, as well as their posts, than on anything put out by the mainstream media or any misleading comments and false accusations hurled by Democratic legislators. I’ll listen to those who use facts rather than those who project on mere emotion. Laws are emotion-free; laws are neutral and serve the nation’s best interests (rather than the interests of foreigners). And of course, we are a nation of laws. That, in the end, is what separates us from Mexico and what separates us from the countries and regimes of South and Central America.  Europe is finally beginning to understand what President Trump means when he says that a nation that can’t control its borders is not a nation at all, or won’t be for very long.

Brandon Darby and Breitbart Texas posted pictures of children being packed into a cement room at one of the detention centers (“holding facilities”) back in 2014, during the Obama administration. No one cared. It was not worthy of being mentioned by the mainstream media.  That picture, by the way, just happens to be the one being circulated as being taken currently at the Texas detention center, hoping to trick Americans into believing this is what Trump is doing.  Back in 2014, Brandon Darby and Breitbart Texas posted pics of the chainlink partitions in the holding facilities at the border (ie “the cages”) with children of illegals inside them. Again, no one cared. And again, it was not worthy of being mentioned by the mainstream media. These “cage” pictures all of a sudden are now the top priority of the mainstream media.

All of a sudden, US journalists – and Democrats – decide that they care about what migrants experience at the border after not giving a shit for many years.

But Democrats and the mainstream media would have you believe – they WANT you to believe, they NEED you to believe – that the “separation” issue (the separation of children from their illegal parents) is a unique consequence caused by President Trump’s horribly inhumane immigration policy. They trust that an ignorant American population will be moved by emotion rather than use their God-given brains. They know that liberals, progressives, and Democrats ignore facts when heartstrings can be manipulated instead….   which, quite frankly, is almost all the time.

But we Americans are NOT stupid, we’re not gullible, we know that facts matter (they aren’t the “pesky little things” despised by Democrats), and we believe very strongly in the Rule of Law. After all, since we are all documented and tracked by the government (and have been, most of us, since we were born), anytime WE break the law, we surely pay the consequences and we suffer the blemish on our records.

I wanted to give a short overview of the “Separations” issue that all-of-a-sudden has everyone up in a roar, has Hollywood actors calling for Barron Trump to be ripped up from Melania’s arms and thrown into a cage with pedophiles, has Hollywood and the mainstream media vilifying Ivanka for posting pictures on social media of her children, and has everyone blaming President Trump.

This is NOT a new issue and this is NOT a situation created or caused by President Trump. The problem is the result of following the very laws and court mandates that govern illegal entry into this country. The difference between the Obama administration and the Trump administration is that the Obama administration let illegals free into the country after 20 days (to get around the child separations issue) while making them promise to report back to ICE for their detention hearing (which NO ONE ever did.; they simply “disappeared,” undocumented, into our country). President Trump has refused to allow that situation to continue.

The current problem, and the issue the media is focused on (obviously), is the “Separation” problem, as I’ve mentioned. The “Separation” problem stems from the Trump administration’s ZERO TOLERANCE immigration policy which, pursuant to federal law [Title 8. Section 1325 of the US Code, as well as Section 275 of the immigration & Naturalization Act – the two have the same exact language) requires ICE to detain and prosecute every person (regardless of asylum claim) who makes an “improper entry into the United States.” The laws make it a misdemeanor (crime) to enter illegally and also provide for civil violations as well. President Trump is merely enforcing the law and making sure everyone who enters illegally is prosecuted. To be clear, there are several “legal” ways to enter the country, as well as legal avenues to seek asylum, but the border issue is one of “illegal entry.” The ZERO TOLERANCE policy aims to prosecute, and prosecute as quickly as possible, ALL illegal border crossers. But, because of a 1997 Court order (Flores v. Reno (aka, the Flores Settlement Agreement), children cannot be detained for longer than 20 days with their parents. Under the Flores Settlement agreement, children are to be detained along with their parents, but after 20 days, they have to be removed from their parents and given to a relative or a caregiver or agent or to some licensed facility (such as the shelters run by the Dept. of Health & Human Services, HHS), OR the entire family unit is released – which we saw a lot of during the Obama administration.

During the Obama administration, the family unit would be kept in detention (a detention facility) for 20 days and then released – but with a court order to appear at some later date for a hearing on their detention (their prosecution of their illegal entry). Unfortunately, records show that only 3% of the detained and released illegals ever returned for their hearing during the Obama years. So, they didn’t just break the law once (illegal entry); they broke it a second time by ignoring the court order. They are repeat criminal offenders.

This is the loophole that President Trump has been talking about; this is the loophole that allows illegals to escape prosecution and evade our laws…. because of the Flores detainment limit for children. This is why he instituted the ZERO TOLERANCE program.

Anyway, it should be noted that children cannot be prosecuted for illegal entry (as their parents can) because they are children and have not come here of their own volition. So “Separation” has been the US policy with respect to the prosecution of illegal crossers. Add to the Flores decision a law that was passed in 2008 by Democrats in a Democratic Congress (and signed by President Bush) designed to combat human trafficking. The law is called the 2008 William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act. Section 235 (g) of that act states that unaccompanied minors (unaccompanied by their parents, that is) entering the US must be transferred to the custody of the Department of Health & Human Services Offices of Refugee Resettlement (rather than to the Department of Homeland Security). The law was expanded to include minors brought into the country illegally (human trafficking, sex slave trade, etc). The 9th Circuit Court of Appeals expanded the 1997 Flores Settlement in 2016 to include children brought into the country illegally. What does this mean?? It means that children suspected of being brought here illegally (being brought by adults not being their parents or having a custodial relationship) are separated and put into a separate detention center (Dept. HHS). If illegal crossers cannot prove, thru documentation, that the children they are bringing are biological or are under the legal custody of the adults, then those children are separated until verification can be made.

Trump’s ZERO TOLERANCE policy ends the separation of children from their parents, but it also calls for the ignoring of the Flores settlement. When 20 days comes, if the illegal crossers have not yet been prosecuted, the children continue to be detained with their parents. I’m sure Trump’s Executive Order will be challenged in court, but it won’t be by Republicans. If Democrats challenge it, we’ll quickly see how much they care about the welfare of the children because President Trump is NOT going to release illegals into our country UNTIL they have first been prosecuted, and he is not going to fall for the guise that “we should do that for the sake of the children.”

Yesterday, President Trump signed an Executive Order temporarily closing the loophole and ending the requirement that children be separated from their parents. As it stands now – until Congress acts, which is should, but which Democrats have obstructed for many years – illegal children will remain with their illegal parents through the prosecution period. He is seeking, at the very minimum, a stand-alone Loophole bill to quickly address the problem and fix the “Separation” situation.

The only reason the separation of children from their parents at the border is an issue at this time is because the Russian investigation has turned out to be a bust (there was no collusion, but the FBI and DOJ sure have a lot of ‘splaining to do !!), the Inspector General’s Report came out (and doesn’t look good at all for the Dems), the gun control marches didn’t work, no one cared a bit about Stormy Daniels and her sex allegation, and Trump is about to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for brokering a much-needed peace on the Korean peninsula and for the denuclearization of that seemingly rogue nation. The Democrats, and their bed-partners – the left-wing media (mainstream media), need something to distract from the success of President Trump and from their own high-level crimes.

Hope this helps.